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Nissan Juke R - 700+ bhp Built by Shpilli Villi Motorsport VS. Porsche 911(997) Mk.1 Turbo Switzer | Protomotive - 900 bhp 1 Mile Race Unlim 500+ 9.2012 Enjoy!
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction). Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol (gasoline) or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and stoves. The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market. To comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's stricter regulation of exhaust emissions, most gasoline-powered vehicles starting with the 1975 model year must be equipped with catalytic converters. These "two-way" converters combine oxygen with carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). In 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by "three-way" converters that also reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx); however, two-way converters are still used for lean-burn engines. This is because three-way-converters require either rich or stoichiometric combustion to successfully reduce NOx. Although catalytic converters are most commonly applied to exhaust systems in automobiles, they are also used on electrical generators, forklifts, mining equipment, trucks, buses, locomotives and motorcycles. They are also used on some wood stoves to control emissions. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct environmental regulation or through health and safety regulations. A catalytic converter has to be changed every 100 000 / 120 000 km in order to be efficient. It is important to recycle this part of the car. The catalytic converter was invented by Eugene Houdry, a French mechanical engineer and expert in catalytic oil refining, who moved to the United States in 1930. When the results of early studies of smog in Los Angeles were published, Houdry became concerned about the role of smoke stack exhaust and automobile exhaust in air pollution and founded a company called Oxy-Catalyst. Houdry first developed catalytic converters for smoke stacks called "cats" for short, and later developed catalytic converters for warehouse forklifts that used low grade, unleaded gasoline. In the mid-1950s, he began research to develop catalytic converters for gasoline engines used on cars. He was awarded United States Patent 2,742,437 for his work. Widespread adoption of catalytic converters did not occur until more stringent emission control regulations forced the removal of the anti-knock agent tetraethyl lead from most types of gasoline. Lead is a "catalyst poison" and would effectively disable a catalytic converter by forming a coating on the catalyst's surface. Catalytic converters were further developed by a series of engineers including John J. Mooney, Carl D. Keith, Antonio Eleazar, and Phillip Messina at the Engelhard Corporation, creating the first production catalytic converter in 1973. William C. Pfefferle developed a catalytic combustor for gas turbines in the early 1970s, allowing combustion without significant formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon Catalyst poisoning occurs when the catalytic converter is exposed to exhaust containing substances that coat the working surfaces, so that they cannot contact and react with the exhaust. The most notable contaminant is lead, so vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can run only on unleaded fuel. Other common catalyst poisons include sulfur, manganese (originating primarily from the gasoline additive MMT) and silicon, which can enter the exhaust stream if the engine has a leak that allows coolant into the combustion chamber. Phosphorus is another catalyst contaminant. Although phosphorus is no longer used in gasoline, it (and zinc, another low-level catalyst contaminant) was until recently widely used in engine oil antiwear additives such as zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP). Beginning in 2004, a limit of phosphorus concentration in engine oils was adopted in the API SM and ILSAC GF-4 specifications. Depending on the contaminant, catalyst poisoning can sometimes be reversed by running the engine under a very heavy load for an extended period of time. The increased exhaust temperature can sometimes vaporise or sublimate the contaminant, removing it from the catalytic surface. However, removal of lead deposits in this manner is usually not possible because of lead's high boiling point.
In this video I'll show you a full walkaround tour of the 2016 Nissan Juke 1.5 dCi 2WD N-Connecta ● Technical specs: - Cylinders: L4 - Displacement: 1461 cm3 - Power: 110 HP @ 4000 RPM - Torque: 260 NM @ 1500 RPM - Fuel System: Turbocharged common rail - Fuel: Diesel - CO2 Emissions: 124 g/km - Drive Type: Front Wheel Drive - Gearbox: 6-speed manual ● Fuel consumption specifications - City: 5.9 L/100km - Highway: 4.3 L/100km - Combined: 4.9 L/100km This video is made possible by: http://www.motorionline.com/ Follow me also on: - My Main Car Channel: http://www.YouTube.com/NM2255 - Facebook: http://www.fb.com/NM2255 - Google+: http://plus.google.com/+nickcarvideos - Twitter: http://Twitter.com/NM2255
Pakistan’s automobile market has been facing a deficit of seven seater cars for ages. Obvious by their size, seven seater cars are a necessity for large families in Pakistan. Let’s not talk about the luxury seven-seaters like V8 and Land cruisers. Keeping in consideration the buying power of the people in Pakistan, here’s a list of some practical yet affordable seven-seater cars in Pakistan. The newly launched Honda BRV is a perfect vehicle for large families. The new 1500cc Honda BRV is not only economical but also practical in all aspects. Honda BRV is available at a price tag of Rs 2.2 million, which makes it a perfect vehicle for large families. Toyota Prius Alpha: Toyota Prius Alpha is a seven-seater hybrid car that features an 1800cc engine and has shown a great sales response in the Pakistani market. Prius Alpha has some exceptional features and is priced at around Rs 2.8 million (2013-14 model). Honda Freed: Technically Honda Freed is a six seater with (2+2+2 seating arrangement) a 1500cc hybrid car, but for the sake of this vehicle category, we will be enlisting this alternative as well. Honda Freed hasn’t shown great sales potential in the Pakistani market. Honda Freed is available for a price tag of Rs 1.7-1.8 million (2013-14 model) but is not reliable enough in terms of resale value and availability of spare parts. Honda Crossroad is a less known seven seater car in Pakistan. Honda Crossroad features an 1800cc engine and strong dynamic shape. Honda Crossroad does not have features like multimedia steering, push-start button and hybrid technology. It is priced at around Rs 3 million (2010-11) model. Honda Odyessey is another lesser known seven seater car available in Pakistan. Honda Odyessey features a 2500cc engine with a van shaped rear body. Honda Odyessey is also priced at around Rs 3 million (2010-11 model).
Nissan Juke Review urdu hindi Startup Test Drive Pakistan By Innovations World