How a CPU is made

author DIY & Tech with Ben   6 год. назад
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RAM Explained - Random Access Memory

Here is the RAM that I use in my PC: https://amzn.to/2KqHGwQ (affiliate) This is an animated video RAM tutorial. Topics include how RAM works, RAM speed, DRAM, SDRAM, Rambus RDRAM, DDR, DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, and ECC. #RAM My YouTube Setup https://www.amazon.com/gp/registry/wishlist/I0ZAXJ8GKJX4/ref=cm_wl_list_o_1?&_encoding=UTF8&tag=powe0ae-20&linkCode=ur2&linkId=51a27c5d268f8344fec155f7c6d29e52&camp=1789&creative=9325

How a CPU Works

Uncover the inner workings of the CPU. Author's Website: http://www.buthowdoitknow.com/ See the Book: http://amzn.to/1mOYJvA See the 6502 CPU Simulation: http://visual6502.org/JSSim/index.html For anyone annoyed by the breaths between speaking, try this unlisted version with edited audio: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkdBs21HwF4 Download the PowerPoint file used to make the video: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzwHNpicSnW0cGVmX0c3SVZzMFk The CPU design used in the video is copyrighted by John Scott, author of the book But How Do It Know?. There are a few small differences between the CPU in the video and the one used in the book. Those differences are listed below but they should not detract from your understanding of either. CONTROL UNIT - This component is called the Control Section in the book. It is called Control Unit here simply because that is a more common name for it that you might see used elsewhere. LOAD INSTRUCTION - In this video, what's called a LOAD instruction is actually called a DATA instruction in the book. The Scott CPU uses two different instructions to move data from RAM into the CPU. One loads the very next piece of data (called a DATA instruction in the book) and the other uses another register to tell it which address to pull that data from (called a LOAD instruction in the book). The instruction was renamed in the video for two reasons: 1) It might be confusing to hear that the first type of data we encounter in RAM is itself also called DATA. 2) Since the LOAD instruction from the book is a more complex concept, it was easier to use the DATA instruction in the video to introduce the concept of moving data from RAM to the CPU . IN and OUT INSTRUCTIONS - In the Scott CPU, there is more involved in moving data between the CPU and external devices than just an IN or an OUT instruction. That process was simplified in the video to make the introduction of the concept easier. ACCUMULATOR - The register that holds the output of the ALU is called the Accumulator in the book. That is the name typically used for this register, although it was simply called a register in the video. MEMORY ADDRESS REGISTER - The Memory Address Register is a part of RAM in the book, but it is a part of the CPU in the video. It was placed in the CPU in the video as this is generally where this register resides in real CPUs. JUMP INSTRUCTIONS - In the book there are two types of unconditional JUMP instructions. One jumps to the address stored at the next address in RAM (this is the one used in the video) and the other jumps to an address that has already been stored in a register. These are called JMP and JMPR instructions in the book respectively. MISSING COMPONENT - There is an additional component missing from the CPU in the video that is used to add 1 to the number stored in a register. This component is called "bus 1" in the book and it simply overrides the temporary register and sends the number 1 to the ALU as input B instead. REVERSED COMPONENTS - The Instruction Register and the Instruction Address Register are in opposite positions in the diagrams used in the book. They are reversed in the video because the internal wiring of the control unit will be introduced in a subsequent video and keeping these registers in their original positions made that design process more difficult. OP CODE WIRING - The wires used by the control unit to tell the ALU what type of operation to perform appear near the bottom of the ALU in the video, but near the top of the ALU in the book. They were reversed for a similar reason as the one listed above. The wiring of the ALU will be introduced in a subsequent video and keeping these wires at the top of the ALU made the design process more difficult.

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This Is the End of the Silicon Chip, Here’s What’s Next

Quantum mechanics could stop microchips from getting any smaller. What does that mean for the future of electronics? Moore's Law Is Ending... So, What's Next? - https://youtu.be/Vv_2C95cO6s Get 20% off http://www.domain.com domain names and web hosting when you use coupon code SEEKER at checkout! Read More: Light-Based Laptops Can Run A Staggering 20 Times Faster https://futurism.com/light-based-laptops-can-run-staggering-20-times-faster/ “We are rapidly approaching the limit to how small we can continue to make our transistors. Photonics could give us a boost up to fifteen times our current power and speed, even at the current transistor size.” A Node By Any Other Name: What’s The Difference Between 16nm And 14nm? http://semiengineering.com/a-node-by-any-other-name/ “Have you ever wondered what gives a particular CMOS technology node its name? When we talk about 20nm, 16nm or 14nm, what exactly does that number in front of the “nm” mean anyway? Is it the first layer metal half-pitch or the gate length (and while we’re at it, is that the printed gate length, the physical gate length, or the effective gate length)?” The World's Smallest Transistor Is 1nm Long, Physics Be Damned https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2016/10/6/13187820/one-nanometer-transistor “The smaller your transistors, the more you can fit on a chip, and the faster and more efficient your processor can be. That's why it's such big news that a team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has successfully built a functional 1 nanometer long transistor gate, which the lab claims is smallest working transistor ever made.” ____________________ Seeker inspires us to see the world through the lens of science and evokes a sense of curiosity, optimism and adventure. Visit the Seeker website https://www.seeker.com/videos Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker http://www.seeker.com/ Special thanks to Julian Huguet for writing this episode of Seeker! Check Julian out on Twitter: https://twitter.com/jhug00 This episode of Seeker was hosted by Trace Dominguez

How a CPU is Made - CPU Manufacturing
Central Processing Unit
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Global Foundries shows how a CPU is made with all major steps of the process. Source: http://www.globalfoundries.com/

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Benyamin Amiri

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